Fair Housing Act

The Fair Housing Act of 1968 prohibited discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex. The bill, intended as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, was the subject of intense debate in the Senate but was quickly passed by the House of Representatives in the days following the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. The Fair Housing Act is regarded as the Civil Rights era’s final great legislative achievement. The law has been amended several times, most recently in 1988 to include disability

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The March on Washington

OVERVIEW August 28, 1963, the March on Washington became one of the largest civil rights rallies in US history, as well as one of the most prominent demonstrations of nonviolent mass direct action. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his inspiring “I Have a Dream” speech during the march, imagining a world in which people were judged not by the color of their skin, but by the quality of their character. The March on Washington received extensive coverage in the national media, and it contributed to the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964. THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT AND THE

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The Freedom Riders Of 1961

The Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and the following years to protest the failure of upholding the United States Supreme Court decisions Morgan v. Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960). Both decisions ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional. Boynton, a graduate of Howard University School of Law in Washington, prohibited racial segregation in restaurants and waiting rooms at terminals serving interstate buses. Five years before the Boynton decision, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) released a decision in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company (1955) that

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Freedom Summer Project

Freedom Summer, also known as the Mississippi Summer Project, was a voter registration drive held in 1964, where civil rights activists used peaceful means to increase the number of registered Black voters in Mississippi. Over 700 volunteers, mostly white, joined African Americans in Mississippi to combat voter intimidation and discrimination at the polls. Civil rights organizations such as the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) organized the movement led by the local Council of Federated Organizations (COFO). Volunteers for Freedom Summer faced severe and extreme resistance from the Ku Klux Klan and representatives of

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Undefeated African-American Leaders

Looking back on history, many leaders have left an impression on millions of people. Here are 9 of those undefeated dreamers, doers, great geniuses and silent innovators, record-breakers and icons of pride and aspiration who helped change the world.  Shirley Chisholm The first African-American woman to serve in the U.S. Congress was Shirley Chisholm, born on 30 November 1924. Chisholm started working with local political groups as an early educator from New York City. In 1964 she secured a place in the New York State Parliament, representing her Brooklyn neighborhood. She was elected to the United States House of Representatives

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Martin Luther King Jr. Summary

A CIVIL RIGHTS LEADER PROMINENT FIGURE IN BLACK HISTORY – DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. The African American Baptist Leader and activist Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was the most visible voice and leader in the Civil Rights movement from 1955 until his death on April 4, 1968. King advanced human rights, based on the Christian values and non-violent advocacy of Mahatma Gandhi, through non-violence and civil disobedience. He was the son of Martin Luther King Sr, an early civil rights pioneer. EARLY LIFE King came from a middle class family, steeped in Southern Black ministry tradition.  Baptist preachers were

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Fannie Lou Hamer’s Interview

Fannie Lou Hamer, the daughter of struggling Mississippi sharecroppers, and the youngest of 19, was not actively involved in American civil rights movements until she was 44 years old.  During her fight for her right to vote, Hamer was beaten, stabbed and shot but persisted and became a field secretary to the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC) and became a pioneer in activism in 1963.  She came into national prominence as the cofounder and vice chair of the Mississippi Free Democratic Party.  Her party challenged the Mississippi Democratic Party’s decision to send a white delegation to the National Convention

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Fannie Lou Hamer Speech

One of the great political moments for Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer (in terms of her place on a national stage) was when she spoke at the Democratic National Convention Credentials Committee in 1964.  Her speech not only detailed her life, but highlighted the fierce brutality she faced for simply wanting to practice a basic right as an American citizen.  Below is her speech in its entirety.  Testimony before the Credentials Committee, Democratic National Convention 1964 Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer “Mr. Chairman, and to the Credentials Committee, my name is Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer, and I live at 626 East Lafayette

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Fannie Lou Hamer Quotes

Here is a collection of Fannie Lou Hamer’s memorable, courageous and brave quotes that inspires everyone. Expressing the power of voice 1.     “If I fall, I’ll fall five feet four inches forward in the fight for freedom. I’m not backing off.” – Fannie Lou Hamer 2.     “If the white man gives you anything – just remember when he gets ready, he will take it right back. We have to take care of ourselves.” – Fannie Lou Hamer 3.     “One day, I know the struggle will change. There’s got to be a change – not only for Mississippi, not only for

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Fannie Lou Hamer Sterilization

Fannie Lou Hamer was the 20th child of Lou Ella and James Lee Townsend, and was born in 1917. At the age of six, she joined her family in the cotton fields. While she managed to finish some years of schooling, she was picking hundreds of pounds of cotton a day by adolescence. She married Perry Hamer, known as Pap, in the early 1940s and served alongside him at W.D. Marlow’s plantation near Ruleville, Sunflower County. The skill of Hamer to read and write gave her the timekeeper post, a less physically challenging and more prestigious job in the sharecropping

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